Net losses attributable to noncontrolling interests decreased by $7 million in 2010 to zero, compared to $7 million in 2009. The benefit for net losses attributable to noncontrolling interests in 2009 of $7 million are net of tax and reflected our partners’ share of losses totaling $11 million associated with joint ventures we consolidate, net of our partners’ share of tax benefits of $4 million associated with the losses.
Net income and net income attributable to Marriott decreased by $260 million (57 percent) to $198 million in 2011 from $458 million in 2010, and diluted earnings per share attributable to Marriott decreased by $0.66 per share (55 percent) to $0.55 per share from $1.21 per share in 2010. As discussed in more detail in the preceding sections beginning with “Operating Income (Loss),” the $260 million decrease in net income compared to the prior year was due to Timeshare strategy-impairment charges ($324 million), higher income taxes ($65 million), lower gains and other income ($42 million), lower Timeshare sales and services revenue net of direct expenses ($40 million), and lower interest income ($5 million). Higher base management and franchise fees ($105 million), higher owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue net of direct expenses ($49 million), lower general, administrative, and other expenses ($28 million), lower interest expense ($16 million), higher incentive management fees ($13 million), and lower equity in losses ($5 million) partially offset these items.
Net income of $458 million in 2010 increased by $811 million (230 percent) from a loss of $353 million in 2009, net income attributable to Marriott of $458 million in 2010 increased by $804 million (232 percent) from a loss of $346 million in 2009, and diluted income per share attributable to Marriott of $1.21 per share increased by $2.18 (225 percent) from losses of $0.97 per share in 2009. As discussed in more detail in the preceding sections beginning with “Operating Income (Loss),” the $458 million increase in net income compared to the prior year was due to a favorable variance related to Timeshare strategy-impairment charges in 2009 ($752 million), higher Timeshare sales and services revenue net of direct expenses ($116 million), lower restructuring costs ($51 million), higher base management and franchise fees ($73 million), lower equity in losses ($48 million), higher incentive management fees ($28 million), higher owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue net of direct expenses ($23 million), and higher gains and other income ($4 million). These favorable variances were partially offset by higher income taxes ($158 million), higher general, administrative, and other expenses ($58 million), higher interest expense ($62 million), and lower interest income ($6 million).
EBITDA, a financial measure that is not prescribed or authorized by United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), reflects earnings excluding the impact of interest expense, provision for income taxes, and depreciation and amortization. We consider EBITDA to be an indicator of operating performance because we use it to measure our ability to service debt, fund capital expenditures, and expand our business. We also use EBITDA, as do analysts, lenders, investors and others, to evaluate companies because it excludes certain items that can vary widely across different industries or among companies within the same industry. For example, interest expense can be dependent on a company’s capital structure, debt levels and credit ratings. Accordingly, the impact of interest expense on earnings can vary significantly among companies. The tax positions of companies can also vary because of their differing abilities to take advantage of tax benefits and because of the tax policies of the jurisdictions in which they operate. As a result, effective tax rates and provision for income taxes can vary considerably among companies. EBITDA also excludes depreciation and amortization because companies utilize productive assets of different ages and use different methods of both acquiring and depreciating productive assets. These differences can result in considerable variability in the relative costs of productive assets and the depreciation and amortization expense among companies.
We also evaluate Adjusted EBITDA, another non-GAAP financial measure, as an indicator of operating performance. Our Adjusted EBITDA reflects:
(1) Timeshare Spin-off Adjustments (“Timeshare Spin-off Adjustments”) as if the spin-off had occurred on the first day of 2010. The Timeshare Spin-off Adjustments remove the results of our former Timeshare segment for 2011 and 2010, remove unallocated spin-off transaction costs of $34 million we incurred in 2011, and assume payment by MVW to us of estimated license fees of $60 million for 2011 and $64 million for 2010. We have also included certain corporate items not previously allocated to our former Timeshare segment in the Timeshare spin-off adjustments. For additional information on the nature of the Timeshare Spin-off Adjustments, see the Form 8-K we filed with the SEC on November 21, 2011 upon completion of the spin-off;
(2) an adjustment for $28 million of other charges for 2011 consisting of an $18 million charge for an other-than-temporary impairment of marketable securities; a $5 million impairment of deferred contract acquisition costs and a $5 million accounts receivable reserve, both related to one Luxury segment property whose owner filed for bankruptcy; and
(3) an adjustment for $98 million of other charges for 2010 consisting of an $84 million impairment charge related to a capitalized revenue management software asset and a $14 million impairment charge related to a land parcel.
We discuss the second and third of these items in greater detail in the preceding “(Losses) Gains and Other Income (Expense)” caption and the “2010 Compared to 2009” heading under the “Operating Income (Loss)” caption, respectively.
We evaluate Adjusted EBITDA to make period-over-period comparisons of our ongoing core operations before material charges. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA also facilitate our comparison of results from our ongoing operations before material charges with results from other lodging companies.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA have limitations and should not be considered in isolation or as substitutes for performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. Both of these non-GAAP measures exclude certain cash expenses that we are obligated to make. In addition, other companies in our industry may calculate EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA differently than we do or may not calculate them at all, limiting EBITDA’s and Adjusted EBITDA’s usefulness as comparative measures. We provide Adjusted EBITDA for illustrative and informational purposes only and this measure is not necessarily indicative of and does not purport to represent what our operating results would have been had the spin-off occurred on the first day of 2010. This information also does not reflect certain financial and operating benefits we expect to realize as a result of the spin-off.
We show our 2011 and 2010 EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA calculations and reconcile those measures with Net Income in the following tables.