We show our (losses) gains and other income for 2011, 2010, and 2009 in the following table:
The $23 million decrease in gains on sales of real estate and other primarily reflected an unfavorable variance from an $18 million gain on the sale of one Timeshare segment property in 2010. The $18 million impairment of equity securities in 2011 reflects an other-than-temporary impairment of marketable securities. For additional information on the impairment, see Footnote No. 4, “Fair Value of Financial Instruments.”
We did not extinguish any debt in 2010. In 2009, we repurchased $122 million principal amount of our Senior Notes in the open market, across multiple series. The $21 million gain on debt extinguishment in 2009 represents the difference between the $98 million purchase price and the $119 million net carrying amount of Senior Notes we repurchased during the period. The $5 million impairment of equity securities in 2009 reflected an other-than-temporary impairment of marketable securities in accordance with the guidance for accounting for certain investments in debt and equity securities. For additional information on the impairment, see Footnote No. 5, “Fair Value Measurements,” of the Notes to the Financial Statements in our 2009 Form 10-K.
Interest expense decreased by $16 million (9 percent) to $164 million in 2011 compared to $180 million in 2010. This decrease was primarily driven by: (1) a $12 million decrease in interest expense on securitized notes, which reflected the transfer of these notes to MVW on the spin-off date, as well as a lower average outstanding balance and a lower average interest rate on those notes prior to the spin-off date; (2) a $2 million increase in capitalized interest associated with construction projects; and (3) a $1 million decrease in interest expense associated with our revolving credit facility and commercial paper program, which reflected lower interest rates. See the “LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES” caption later in this report for additional information on our credit facility.
Interest expense increased by $62 million (53 percent) to $180 million in 2010 compared to $118 million in 2009. This increase was driven by: (1) the consolidation of $1,121 million of debt in the 2010 first quarter associated with previously securitized notes, which resulted in a $55 million increase in interest expense in 2010 related to that debt; (2) a $14 million unfavorable variance from 2009 as a result of lower capitalized interest in 2010 associated with construction projects; and (3) $12 million of higher interest expense in 2010 associated with our executive deferred compensation plan. These increases were partially offset by: (1) $12 million of lower interest expense associated with our repurchase of $122 million of principal amount of our Senior Notes in 2009, the maturity of our Series C Senior Notes in the 2009 fourth quarter and other net debt reductions; and (2) a $7 million decrease in interest expense associated with our previous $2.4 billion multicurrency revolving credit facility, which primarily reflected lower average borrowings.
Interest income decreased by $5 million (26 percent) to $14 million in 2011 compared to $19 million in 2010, primarily reflecting a $3 million decrease associated with the repayment of certain loans.
Our tax provision increased by $65 million (70 percent) to a tax provision of $158 million in 2011 from a tax provision of $93 million in 2010. The increase was primarily due to an unfavorable variance related to a prior year IRS settlement on the treatment of funds received from certain non-U.S. subsidiaries that resulted in an $85 million benefit to our income tax provision in 2010 and $34 million of income tax expense that we recorded in 2011 to write-off certain deferred tax assets that we transferred to MVW in conjunction with the spin-off of our timeshare operations and timeshare development business. We impaired these assets because we consider it “more likely than not” that MVW will be unable to realize the value of those deferred tax assets. Please see Footnote No. 17, “Spin-off” of the Notes to our Financial Statements for additional information on the transaction. The increases were partially offset by lower pretax income in 2011.
Interest income decreased by $6 million (24 percent) to $19 million in 2010, compared to $25 million in 2009, primarily reflecting a $4 million decrease associated with a loan that we determined was impaired in 2009. Because we recognize interest on impaired loans on a cash basis, we did not recognize any interest on this loan after its impairment. The decline in interest income also reflected a $2 million decrease due to a reduction in principal due associated with one loan.
Our income tax expense increased by $158 million (243 percent) to a provision of $93 million in 2010 from a benefit of $65 million in 2009. The increase was primarily due to pretax income in 2010 (as compared to a pretax loss in 2009) and $14 million of higher tax expense associated with changes to our deferred compensation plan (there were no 2010 plan changes impacting deferred compensation expenses, compared with changes which had a $14 million favorable impact in 2009). The increase was partially offset by a lower tax rate in 2010, as 2009 reflected $52 million of income tax expense primarily related to the treatment of funds received from certain non-U.S. subsidiaries. In the 2010 fourth quarter, we settled issues with the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) on our treatment of funds received from certain non-U.S. subsidiaries. In conjunction with that settlement, we recorded an $85 million benefit to our income tax provision in 2010. Our 2010 income tax expense also reflected a $12 million benefit we recorded primarily associated with revisions to prior years’ estimated foreign tax expense.
Equity in losses of $13 million in 2011 decreased by $5 million from equity in losses of $18 million in 2010 and primarily reflected $9 million of increased earnings at two North American Limited-Service joint ventures and one International segment joint venture, primarily due to stronger property-level performance; $8 million of lower losses for a residential and fractional project joint venture (our former Timeshare segment stopped recognizing their share of the joint venture’s losses as their investment, including loans due from the joint venture, was reduced to zero in 2010); and a favorable variance from joint venture impairment charges in 2010 of $5 million associated with our North American Limited-Service segment. These favorable impacts were partially offset by $8 million of decreased earnings at two Luxury segment joint ventures. Furthermore, in 2011 and 2010 we reversed $3 million and $11 million, respectively of the $27 million funding liability we initially recorded in the Timeshare strategy-impairment charges (non-operating) caption of our 2009 Income Statement (see Footnote No. 18, “Timeshare Strategy-Impairment Charges” of the Notes to our Financial Statements of this Annual Report for additional information). The $11 million reversal in 2010 and the $3 million reversal in 2011 were both recorded based on facts and circumstances surrounding a project related to our former Timeshare segment, including continued progress on certain construction-related legal claims and potential funding of certain costs by one of the partners.
Equity in losses of $18 million in 2010 decreased by $48 million from equity in losses of $66 million in 2009 and primarily reflected favorable variances from a $30 million impairment charge associated with a Luxury segment joint venture investment that we determined was fully impaired and a $3 million impairment charge for a joint venture that we did not allocate to one of our segments, both incurred in 2009. In the 2010 fourth quarter we also recorded an $11 million reversal of the $27 million funding liability initially recorded in 2009 (see preceding “2011 Compared to 2010” discussion). Increased earnings of $5 million for our International segment joint ventures and $3 million of lower cancellation reserves at our former Timeshare segment joint venture also contributed to the decrease in equity in losses. A 2010 impairment charge of $5 million associated with our North American Limited-Service segment joint venture partially offset the favorable impacts.